Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Several reports suggest that acute inflammation after ischemia-reperfusion exacerbates brain damage; however, molecular mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. Here, we report that MAC-3-positive immune cells, including infiltrating bone marrow-derived macrophages and activated microglia, express abundant angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL) 2 in ischemic mouse brain in a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Both neurological deficits and infarct volume decreased in transient MCAO model mice established in Angptl2 knockout (KO) relative to wild-type mice. Acute brain inflammation after ischemiareperfusion, as estimated by expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF)-α, was significantly suppressed in Angptl2 KO compared to control mice. Moreover, analysis employing bone marrow chimeric models using Angptl2 KO and wild-type mice revealed that infiltrated bone marrow-derived macrophages secreting ANGPTL2 significantly contribute to acute brain injury seen after ischemia-reperfusion. These studies demonstrate that infiltrating bone marrow-derived macrophages promote inflammation and injury in affected brain areas after ischemia-reperfusion, likely via ANGPTL2 secretion in the acute phase of ischemic stroke.
Amadatsu, T., Morinaga, J., Kawano, T., Terada, K., Kadomatsu, T., Miyata, K., … Oike, Y. (2016). Macrophage-derived angiopoietin-like protein 2 exacerbates brain damage by accelerating acute inflammation after ischemia-reperfusion. PLoS ONE, 11(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166285