This paper details the main factors influencing the performance of limestone calcined clay cements (LC3). The kaolinite content plays a major role in the rheological properties as well as strength development. Even in the presence of secondary phases, kaolinite can be accurately quantified by thermogravimetric analysis. The performance of LC3 is slightly influenced by the calcination process of clay, but it can be optimized by using the correct calcination temperature and applying a specific mix design with adjusted sulfate and alkali content. The hydration reactions of LC3 are fully characterized. They vary slightly from plain cement. There is no significant change in terms of phase assemblage. The main properties of LC3 are also described. LC3 blends show a lower creep compliance and a delay in shrinkage strains compared with plain cement. Concerning durability, LC3 blends show outstanding performance with respect to resisting chloride ingress and expansion from the alkali-silica reaction.
Scrivener, K., Avet, F., Maraghechi, H., Zunino, F., Ston, J., Hanpongpun, W., & Favier, A. (2018). Impacting factors and properties of limestone calcined clay cements (LC3). Green Materials, 7(1), 3–14. https://doi.org/10.1680/jgrma.18.00029