At first glance, Christians and Shi‘is occupy starkly differing socio-economic and religious positions in Pakistani society. Yet, this article argues that both communities share some remarkable similarities in their engagement with the seemingly hostile Pakistani state. Both Christians and Shi‘is have not given up on claiming their stakes as full citizens of the nation despite repeated attempts by parts of the majority population to ostracise and exclude them. I show how they continue to re-read the early history of Pakistan, attempt to prove their unwavering loyalty to the state, try to build bridges with the majority community and, finally, portray themselves as being a spiritual elite that still guarantees the initial promise of Pakistan.
Fuchs, S. W. (2020). Reclaiming the Citizen: Christian and Shi‘i Engagements with the Pakistani State. South Asia: Journal of South Asia Studies, 43(1), 101–118. https://doi.org/10.1080/00856401.2020.1689616