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Background: Nephrolithiasis (NL) affects 1 in 11 individuals worldwide and causes significant morbidity and cost. Common variants in the calcium sensing receptor gene (CaSR) have been associated with NL. Rare inactivating CaSR variants classically cause hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia and hypocalciuria. However, NL and familial hypercalciuria have been paradoxically associated with select inactivating CaSR variants in three kindreds from Europe and Australia. Methods: To discover novel NL-associated CaSR variants from a geographically distinct cohort, 57 Pakistani families presenting with pediatric onset NL were recruited. The CaSR locus was analyzed by directed or exome sequencing. Results: We detected a heterozygous and likely pathogenic splice variant (GRCh37 Chr3:122000958A>G; GRCh38 Chr3:12228211A>G; NM_000388:c.1609-2A>G) in CaSR in one family with recurrent calcium oxalate stones. This variant would be predicted to cause exon skipping and premature termination (p.Val537Metfs*49). Moreover, a splice variant of unknown significance in an alternative CaSR transcript (GRCh37 Chr3:122000929G>C; GRCh38 Chr3:122282082G >C NM_000388:c.1609-31G >C NM_001178065:c.1609-1G >C) was identified in two additional families. Conclusions: Sequencing of the CaSR locus in Pakistani stone formers reveals a novel loss-of-function variant, expanding the connection between the CaSR locus and nephrolithiasis.
Ullah, I., Ottlewski, I., Shehzad, W., Riaz, A., Ijaz, S., Tufail, A., … Majmundar, A. J. (2021). Sequencing the CaSR locus in Pakistani stone formers reveals a novel loss-of-function variant atypically associated with nephrolithiasis. BMC Medical Genomics, 14(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12920-021-01116-5