Free-space optical interconnects (FSOI) have been widely studied as a possible solution to the interconnect bottleneck at several levels of high-speed digital systems. Here we review the underlying principles of the design of FSOIs and consider the physical limitations to interconnect density and distance. We discuss the issue of tolerance to misalignment and compare different packaging approaches. Throughout this chapter we illustrate the analysis with examples of recently implemented systems.
Kirk, A. G. (2006). Free-space optical interconnects. Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 119. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-28912-8_13