Background: The Coercion Experience Scale (CES) was designed to measure the psychological impact of psychiatric coercive interventions. The French-language CES was adapted using a translation/back-translation procedure. It consists originally of 31 items and 6 subscores. Aim: The goal of this study was aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the French-language CES. Method: 146 inpatients were evaluated. Internal validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency coefficients and a test-retest procedure. Convergent validity was estimated using correlations between the AES scores and the Coercion Ladder (CL), the MacArthur's Admission Experience Survey (AES) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) scale. Discriminatory power was evaluated by comparing the scores of patients undergoing voluntary or compulsory admission. Results: Although the six-factor original model of the CES showed adequate fit to the data of the French-language version, two factors were almost indistinguishable. A well-defined five-factor alternative was proposed. The CES scores showed good internal consistency. Test-retest reliability varied from good to weak among the five subscores. Correlations between CES and CL, AES and WHOQOL scores suggested good convergent validity for most scores. Two CES scores were significantly higher among patients subject to compulsory psychiatric hospital admission than among those admitted voluntarily. Conclusions: Overall, the French-language version of the CES is a usable tool to study different aspects of perceived coercion.
Golay, P., Favrod, J., Morandi, S., & Bonsack, C. (2019). Psychometric properties of the French-language version of the Coercion Experience Scale (CES). Annals of General Psychiatry, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12991-019-0230-x