Effects of APOE gene ε4 allele on serum lipid profiles and risk of cardiovascular disease and tumorigenesis in southern Chinese population

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Abstract

Background: Human apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphisms are attributable to the presence of three common alleles, namely, ε2, ε3, and ε4, which generate six genotypes, viz, E2/E2, E2/E3, E3/E3, E3/E4, E4/E4, and E2/E4. APOE polymorphisms are associated with all types of tumors and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, the relationship between the type of APOE polymorphisms and tumorigenesis remains debatable. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of APOE polymorphisms on the tumor with or without CVD in southern China. Methods: A total of 1438 participants were categorized into 4 groups: 409 patients with tumor, 369 patients with CVD, 338 patients with both tumor and CVD, and 322 controls. APOE polymorphisms were determined by genotyping assay. The factors influencing tumor patients with or without CVD were also analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Results: The present study involved different types of solid tumors. Lung cancer was the most common cancer (20.2%, 151/747), followed by colorectal (17%, 127/747), esophageal (9.8%, 73/747), and liver (8.7%, 65/747) cancers. E3/E3 was the most frequent genotype, and ɛ3 was the greatest allele frequency in our study population. The frequencies of the E3/E3, E3/E4, E2/E3, E2/E4, E4/E4, and E2/E2 genotypes in tumor patients were 76.97% (575/747), 14.19% (106/747), 6.83% (51/747), 1.2% (9/747), 0.4% (3/747), and 0.4% (3/747), respectively. Tumor patients carrying ε3 with or without CVD showed higher levels of TG, TC, and LDL-C and lower levels of HDL-C compared to the controls carrying ε3. On the other hand, the tumor patients carrying ε4 with or without CVD showed higher levels of TG and LDL-C and lower levels of HDL-C (all P < 0.05). The frequency of APOE ε4 allele and the E3/E4 genotype was relatively greater in tumor or CVD patients (P < 0.001). In addition, ε4 allele acted as an independent risk factor for tumor patients group (P = 0.037, adjusted OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.04–3.55) and tumor + CVD patients group (P = 0.012, adjusted OR = 2.53, 95% CI 1.22–5.23). Conclusions: Individuals carrying ε4 are at a higher risk of tumor with or without CVD, and APOE polymorphisms affect the serum lipid profiles.

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Gan, C., Zhang, Y., Liang, F., Guo, X., & Zhong, Z. (2022). Effects of APOE gene ε4 allele on serum lipid profiles and risk of cardiovascular disease and tumorigenesis in southern Chinese population. World Journal of Surgical Oncology, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12957-022-02748-2

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