Anti-inflammatory effects of Viola yedoensis and the application of cell extraction methods for investigating bioactive constituents in macrophages

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Abstract

Background: Viola yedoensis (VY, Violaceae) is a popular medicinal herb used in traditional eastern medicine for treating lots of diseases, including inflammation and its related symptoms. However, the anti-inflammatory properties of VY have not been demonstrated. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of VY ethanol extract (VYE) on macrophages and attempted to identify the bioactive components of VYE. Methods: We assessed the effects of VYE on secretion of nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β. In addition, we explored the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and changes in heme oxygenase (HO)-1, nuclear factor (NF)-kB, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, a rapid and useful approach to identify potential bioactive components in VYE with anti-inflammatory effects was developed using murine macrophage cell extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Results: We found that VYE exerted anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the production of key inflammation mediators and related products, as well as suppression of HO-1, NF-kB, and MAPK signaling pathway activation in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, we identified two compounds in VYE via the cell extraction method. Conclusions: Our results revealed that VYE exerts anti-inflammatory activities and its detailed inhibitory mechanism in macrophages. Furthermore, we identified bioactive components of VYE.

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Jeong, Y. H., Oh, Y. C., Cho, W. K., Shin, H., Lee, K. Y., & Ma, J. Y. (2016). Anti-inflammatory effects of Viola yedoensis and the application of cell extraction methods for investigating bioactive constituents in macrophages. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1142-9

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