Low-chloride- versus high-chloride-containing hypertonic solution for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage-related complications: The ACETatE (A low ChloriE hyperTonic solution for brain Edema) randomized trial

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Abstract

Background: Recent reports have demonstrated that among patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) treated with hypertonic NaCl, resultant hyperchloremia has been associated with the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). We report a trial comparing the effect of two hypertonic solutions with different chloride contents on the resultant serum chloride concentrations in SAH patients, with a primary outcome aimed at limiting chloride elevation. Methods: A low ChloridE hyperTonic solution for brain Edema (ACETatE) trial is a single-center, double-blinded, double-dummy, randomized pilot trial comparing bolus infusions of 23.4% NaCl and 16.4% NaCl/Na-acetate for the treatment of cerebral edema in patients with SAH. Randomization occurred when patients developed hyperchloremia (serum Cl- ≥ 109 mmol/L) and required hyperosmolar treatment. Results: We enrolled 59 patients, of which 32 developed hyperchloremia and required hyperosmolar treatment. 15 patients were randomized to the 23.4% NaCl group, and 17 patients were randomized to the 16.4% NaCl/Na-acetate group. Although serum chloride levels increased similarly in both groups, the NaCl/Acetate group showed a significantly lower Cl- load at the end of the study period (978mEq vs. 2,464mEq, p < 0.01). Secondary outcome analysis revealed a reduced rate of AKI in the Na-acetate group (53.3% in the NaCl group vs. 11.8% in the Na-acetate group, p = 0.01). Both solutions had similar effects on ICP reduction, but NaCl/Acetate treatment had a more prominent effect on immediate post-infusion Na+ concentrations (increase of 2.2 ± 2.8 vs. 1.4 ± 2.6, (p < 0.01)). Proximal tubule renal biomarkers differed in concentration between the two groups. Conclusions: Our pilot trial showed the feasibility and safety of replacing 23.4% NaCl infusions with 16.4% NaCl/Na-acetate infusions to treat cerebral edema in patients with SAH. The degree of hyperchloremia was similar in the two groups. 16.4% NaCl/Na-acetate infusions led to lower Cl- load and AKI rates than 23.4% NaCl infusions. Further multi-center studies are needed to corroborate these results. Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov # NCT03204955, registered on 6/28/2017

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Sadan, O., Singbartl, K., Kraft, J., Plancher, J. M. O., Greven, A. C. M., Kandiah, P., … Samuels, O. (2020). Low-chloride- versus high-chloride-containing hypertonic solution for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage-related complications: The ACETatE (A low ChloriE hyperTonic solution for brain Edema) randomized trial. Journal of Intensive Care, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40560-020-00449-0

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