Association of early-onset breast cancer with body mass index, menarche, and menopause in Taiwan

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Abstract

Background: The trend of women suffering from early-onset breast cancer is increasing in Taiwan. The association of early-onset breast cancer with body mass index (BMI), menarche, and menopausal status has focused interest on the field of cancer epidemiology; however, few studies have explored the interaction of these factors on early-onset risk. This study aimed to estimate the interaction effects of BMI, menarche, and menopausal status on 40-year-old early-onset breast cancer. Methods: Breast cancer patients were recruited from Kaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital from 2013 to 2020. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for early-onset breast cancer risk associated with menarcheal age stratified by sociodemographic factors and for the interaction between BMI and menopausal status on early-onset risk. Results: A total of 775 participants were divided into 131 early-onset cases (≤ 40 years) and 644 late-onset cases (> 40 years). Compared to the age of 13 years at menarche, the age ≤ 11 years was significantly positively associated (OR: 2.62, 95% CI: 1.38–4.97) and ≥ 16 years was negatively associated (OR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03–0.53) with 40-year-old early-onset breast cancer respectively. In an adjusted model, the status of BMI < 24 and premenopause had 1.76- and 4.59-fold risk of early-onset breast cancer respectively. Especially in BMI < 24 status, premenopause also had a 6.47-fold early-onset risk and the early-onset risk increased by a significant amount per one year younger at menarche (aOR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03–1.55). There was also a positive interaction effect on an additive scale between BMI and menopausal status on early-onset breast cancer (RERIOR = 4.62, Pinteraction = 0.057). Compared to both BMI ≥ 24 and peri-/postmenopausal status, both the status of BMI < 24 and premenopause were associated with early-onset breast cancer (aOR: 7.16, 95% CI: 3.87–13.25). Conclusions: This study suggests that the status of BMI < 24 and premenopause were associated with an increased risk of early-onset breast cancer and there was a positive interaction on an additive scale. Understanding how obesity and menopausal status affect early-onset breast cancer is important for drafting preventive measures for early-onset breast cancer in Taiwan.

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Yang, P. J., Hou, M. F., Ou-Yang, F., Tsai, E. M., & Wang, T. N. (2022). Association of early-onset breast cancer with body mass index, menarche, and menopause in Taiwan. BMC Cancer, 22(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-022-09361-2

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