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Background: Hypertension-related mortality has been increasing in older adults, resulting in serious burden to society and individual. However, how to identify older adults with hypertension at high-risk mortality remains a great challenge. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate the prediction nomogram for 5-year all-cause mortality in older adults with hypertension. Methods: Data were extracted from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We recruited 2691 participants aged 65 years and over with hypertension in the NHANES 1999-2006 cycles (training cohort) and 1737 participants in the NHANES 2007-2010 cycles (validation cohort). The cohorts were selected to provide at least 5 years follow-up for evaluating all-cause mortality by linking National Death Index through December 31, 2015. We developed a web-based dynamic nomogram for predicting 5-year risk of all-cause mortality based on a logistic regression model in training cohort. We conducted internal validation by 1000 bootstrapping resamples and external validation in validation cohort. The discrimination and calibration of nomogram were evaluated using concordance index (C-index) and calibration curves. Results: The final model included eleven independent predictors: age, sex, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, body mass index, smoking, lipid-lowering drugs, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin, albumin, and blood urea nitrogen. The C-index of model in training and validation cohort were 0.759 (bootstrap-corrected C-index 0.750) and 0.740, respectively. The calibration curves also indicated that the model had satisfactory consistence in two cohorts. A web-based nomogram was established (https://hrzhang1993.shinyapps.io/dynnomapp). Conclusions: The novel developed nomogram is a useful tool to accurately predict 5-year all-cause mortality in older adults with hypertension, and can provide valuable information to make individualized intervention.
Zhang, H., Tian, W., & Sun, Y. (2022). Development, validation, and visualization of a web-based nomogram to predict 5-year mortality risk in older adults with hypertension. BMC Geriatrics, 22(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-022-03087-3