Dynamic Mode Decomposition for the Comparison of Engine In-Cylinder Flow Fields from Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) Simulations

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Abstract

Validation of Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulation results against experimental data such as flow measurements from particle image velocimetry (PIV) remains a challenge for the development of thermal propulsion systems. This is partly due to cycle-to-cycle variations (CCVs) in the air motion and partly due to uncertainties in the PIV measurement technique, complicating the question of what constitutes a fair validation target for the RANS model. Indeed, an inappropriate validation target can misguide subsequent adjustments of a RANS model. In this work, the ensemble-averaged PIV field is first investigated for its suitability as a validation target for RANS simulations. The relevance index and the velocity histogram distance are used as quantitative metrics to assess the similarity of the ensemble-averaged field to the full dataset of individual PIV cycles. While a high similarity is seen between the average PIV flow field and the individual cycles on the tumble plane, the similarity is lower and more variable on the cross-tumble plane, where there are significant CCVs. Standard (space-only, phase-dependent) proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is employed as an alternative method of data processing with the aim of providing a fairer comparison to RANS simulations. The cycle-dependence of the standard POD modes is shown to be an aspect that results in many validation targets and an excessively broad validation range, limiting its utility in this context. Dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) and sparsity-promoting dynamic mode decomposition (SPDMD) are then proposed as alternative solutions, capable of extracting flow structures at specific frequencies. The background 0 Hz SPDMD modes exhibit an ability to produce more realistic flow fields with velocity magnitudes that are significantly closer to the individual cycles.

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Baker, S., Fang, X., Shen, L., Willman, C., Fernandes, J., Leach, F., & Davy, M. (2023). Dynamic Mode Decomposition for the Comparison of Engine In-Cylinder Flow Fields from Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) Simulations. Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, 111(1), 115–140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10494-023-00424-3

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