Hydrodynamic performance of the marine mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, is studied with time-resolved particle image velocimetry. We evaluated inhalant flow, exhalant jet flow, suction performance and flow control capabilities of the mussels quantitatively. Inhalant flow structures of mussels are measured at the coronal plane for the first time in literature. Nutrient fluid is convected into the mussel by three-dimensional sink flow. Inhalant velocity reaches its highest magnitude inside the mussel mantle while it is accelerating outward from the mussels. We calculated pressure gradient at the coronal plane. As inhalant flow approaches the mussel shell tip, suction force generated by the inhalant flow increases and becomes significant at the shell tip. Likewise, exhalant jet flow regimes were studied for 17 mussels. Mussels can control their exhalant jet flow structure froma single potential core region to double potential core region or vice versa. Peak exhalant jet velocity generated by the mussels changes between 2.77 cm s-1 and 11.1 cm s-1 as a function of mussel cavity volume. Measurements of hydrodynamic dissipation at the sagittal plane revealed no interaction between the inhalant and exhalant jet flow, indicating energy-efficient synchronized pumping mechanism. This efficient pumpingmechanismis associated with the flow-Turning angle between inhalant and exhalant jet flows, 90° (s.d. 12°).
Uslu, F. E., & Pekkan, K. (2016). Mytilus galloprovincialis as a smart micro-pump. Biology Open, 5(10), 1493–1499. https://doi.org/10.1242/bio.021048