The current treatment options for soft tissue injuries remain suboptimal and often result in delayed/incomplete recovery of damaged muscle. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of oral Prosopis glandulosa treatment on inflammation and regeneration in skeletal muscle after contusion injury, in comparison to a conventional treatment. The gastrocnemius muscle of rats was subjected to mass-drop injury and muscle samples collected after 1-, 3 h, 1-and 7 days post-injury. Rats were treated with P. glandulosa (100 mg/kg/day) either for 8 weeks prior to injury (up until day 7 post-injury), only post-injury, or with topically applied diclofenac post-injury (0.57 mg/kg). Neutrophil (His48-positive) and macrophage (F4/80-positive) infiltration was assessed by means of immunohistochemistry. Indicators of muscle satellite cell proliferation (ADAM12) and regeneration (desmin) were used to evaluate muscle repair. Chronic P. glandulosa and diclofenac treatment (p < 0.0001) was associated with suppression of the neutrophil response to contusion injury, however only chronic P. glandulosa treatment facilitated more effective muscle recovery (increased ADAM12 (p < 0.05) and desmin (p < 0.001) expression), while diclofenac treatment had inhibitory effects on repair, despite effective inhibition of neutrophil response. Data indicates that P. glandulosa treatment results in more effective muscle repair after contusion.
George, C., Smith, C., Isaacs, A. W., & Huisamen, B. (2015). Chronic prosopis glandulosa treatment blunts neutrophil infiltration and enhances muscle repair after contusion injury. Nutrients, 7(2), 815–830. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7020815