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Background: Crack use has become a severe health problem in Brazil. Contingency management has shown robust evidence of efficacy in the treatment of cocaine use disorder (CUD) in high-income countries; however, it is still unclear how this intervention can impact treatment in low-income countries. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of contingency management in the treatment of CUD among individuals with a previous history of poor treatment response in Brazil. Methods: Six months after the end of treatment, 32 participants previously allocated to the usual care condition (UCC) were invited to receive an additional 12 weeks of treatment in a contingency management condition (CMC), and 16 accepted the invitation. We compared data obtained from only the 16 participants (14 male) exposed to both treatment conditions. Results: Participants attended more treatment sessions and were retained in treatment for a longer period during the CMC than during the UCC (p
de Queiroz Constantino Miguel, A., Sandi Madruga, C., Simões, V., Yamauchi, R., da Silva, C. J., McDonell, M., … de Jesus Mari, J. (2019). Contingency management is effective in promoting abstinence and retention in treatment among crack cocaine users with a previous history of poor treatment response: a crossover trial. Psicologia: Reflexao e Critica, 32(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41155-019-0127-2