Different therapeutic strategies are used for lowering prolactin concentrations in patients with psychotic disorders with antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia. We aimed to examine the evidence from open-label studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that studied four prolactin-lowering therapeutic strategies in people with psychotic disorders and hyperprolactinaemia: 1) switching to prolactin-sparing antipsychotics; 2) adding aripiprazole; 3) adding dopamine agonists; and 4) adding metformin. RCTs were included in a meta-analysis. Effect sizes (Hedges' g) of prolactin reductions with each strategy were calculated. Withdrawal rates were also considered. We identified 26 studies. Nine studies explored switching antipsychotic treatment to aripiprazole (n = 4), olanzapine (n = 1), quetiapine (n = 2), paliperidone palmitate (n = 1) or blonanserin (n = 1). Twelve studies tested the addition of aripiprazole. Six studies explored the addition of cabergoline (n = 3), bromocriptine (n = 2) or terguride (n = 1). We also found one meta-analysis testing the addition of metformin to antipsychotic treatment but no other individual studies. A meta-analysis could only be performed for the addition of aripiprazole, the strategy with the best level of evidence. Five RCTs testing the addition of aripiprazole yielded a significant reduction in prolactin concentration compared to placebo (N = 3) or maintaining antipsychotic treatment (N = 2): Hedges' g was −1.35 (CI 95%: −1.93 to −0.76, p < 0.001). The three placebo-controlled RCTs for aripiprazole addition showed similar withdrawal rates for aripiprazole (10.1%) and placebo (11.5%), without significant differences in the meta-analysis. Our study suggests that, in terms of levels of evidence, adding aripiprazole is the first option to be considered for lowering prolactin concentrations in patients with schizophrenia and hyperprolactinaemia.
Labad, J., Montalvo, I., González-Rodríguez, A., García-Rizo, C., Crespo-Facorro, B., Monreal, J. A., & Palao, D. (2020, August 1). Pharmacological treatment strategies for lowering prolactin in people with a psychotic disorder and hyperprolactinaemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research. Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2020.04.031