Effectiveness of standardized nursing care plans to achieve A1C, blood pressure, and LDL-C goals among people with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus at baseline: Four-year follow-up study

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Abstract

Background: No studies that have measured the role of nursing care plans in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our objectives were firstly, to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing Standardized languages in Nursing Care Plans (SNCP) for improving A1C, blood pressure and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (ABC goals) in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus at baseline (A1C ≥7%, blood pressure ≥ 130/80 mmHg, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol≥100 mg/dl) compared with Usual Nursing Care (UNC). Secondly, to evaluate the factors associated with these goals. Methods: A four-year prospective follow-up study among outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: We analyzed outpatients of 31 primary health centers (Madrid, Spain), with at least two A1C values (at baseline and at the end of the study) who did not meet their ABC goals at baseline. A total of 1916 had A1C ≥7% (881 UNC versus 1035 SNCP). Two thousand four hundred seventy-one had systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg (1204 UNC versus 1267 SNCP). One thousand one hundred seventy had diastolic blood pressure ≥ 80 mmHg (618 UNC versus 552 SNCP); and 2473 had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥100 mg/dl (1257 UNC versus 1216 SNCP). Data were collected from computerized clinical records; SNCP were identified using NANDA and NIC taxonomies. Results: More patients cared for using SNCP achieved in blood pressure goals compared with patients who received UNC (systolic blood pressure: 29.4% versus 28.7%, p = 0.699; diastolic blood pressure: 58.3% versus 53.2%, p = 0.08), but the differences did not reach statistical significance. For A1C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals, there were no significant differences between the groups. Coronary artery disease was a significant predictor of blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals. Conclusions: In patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus, there is not enough evidence to support the use of SNCP instead of with UNC with the aim of helping patients to achieve their ABC goals. However, the use of SNCP is associated with a clear trend of a achievement of diastolic blood pressure goals.

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Cárdenas-Valladolid, J., López-De Andrés, A., Jiménez-García, R., De Dios-Duarte, M. J., Gómez-Campelo, P., De Burgos-Lunar, C., … Salinero-Fort, M. A. (2018). Effectiveness of standardized nursing care plans to achieve A1C, blood pressure, and LDL-C goals among people with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus at baseline: Four-year follow-up study. BMC Family Practice, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12875-018-0800-z

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