Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have dramatically changed lung cancer treatment, demonstrating an overall survival benefit. There are limited data about re-challenge in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. We attempted to address this question for re-challenge of immune checkpoint inhibitor in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 11 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with nivolumab and re-challenged with nivolumab/pemblorizumab at Kansai Medical University Hospital from December 2015 to December 2017. Results: Three patients achieved PR and two patients were in SD. These patients were apt to be good responders to the initial treatment, to develop immune-related adverse events and to be immediately started on re-challenge with immune checkpoint inhibitor. The median PFS was 2.7 (range, 0.5-16.1) months. Five patients (45%) had mild to moderate immune-related adverse events. Conclusion: Our study shows the effectiveness of re-challenge of immune checkpoint inhibitors in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer patients. Re-challenge might become one of treatment option for advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Niki, M., Nakaya, A., Kurata, T., Yoshioka, H., Kaneda, T., Kibata, K., … Nomura, S. (2018). Immune checkpoint inhibitor re-challenge in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Oncotarget, 9(64), 32298–32304. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.25949