This paper presents the design and performance analysis of Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm based Proportional-Integral (PI) and Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers for Automatic Generation Control (AGC) of an interconnected power system. Initially, a two area thermal system with governor dead-band nonlinearity is considered for the design and analysis purpose. In the proposed approach, the design problem is formulated as an optimization problem control and DE is employed to search for optimal controller parameters. Three different objective functions are used for the design purpose. The superiority of the proposed approach has been shown by comparing the results with a recently published Craziness based Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) technique for the same interconnected power system. It is noticed that, the dynamic performance of DE optimized PI controller is better than CPSO optimized PI controllers. Additionally, controller parameters are tuned at different loading conditions so that an adaptive gain scheduling control strategy can be employed. The study is further extended to a more realistic network of two-area six unit system with different power generating units such as thermal, hydro, wind and diesel generating units considering boiler dynamics for thermal plants, Generation Rate Constraint (GRC) and Governor Dead Band (GDB) non-linearity.
Mohanty, B., Panda, S., & Hota, P. K. (2014). Differential evolution algorithm based automatic generation control for interconnected power systems with non-linearity. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 53(3), 537–552. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2014.06.006