Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections constitute a major public health problem in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. In areas where prevalence of geo-helminths and schistosomes is high, co-infection with multiple parasite species is common, resulting in disproportionately elevated burden compared with single infections. Determining risk factors of co-infection intensity is important for better design of targeted interventions. In this paper, we examined risk factors of hookworm and S. haematobium co-infection intensity, in Chikwawa district, southern Malawi in 2005, using bivariate count models. Results show that hookworm and S. haematobium infections were much localised with small proportion of individuals harbouring more parasites especially among school-aged children. The risk of co-intensity with both hookworm and S. haematobium was high for all ages, although this diminished with increasing age, increased with fishing (hookworm: coefficient. = 12.29; 95% CI = 11.50–13.09; S. haematobium: 0.040; 95% CI = 0.0037, 3.832). Both infections were abundant in those with primary education (hookworm: coef. = 0.072; 95% CI = 0.056, 0.401 and S. haematobium: coef. = 0.286; 95% CI = 0.034, 0.538). However, much lower risk was observed for those who were farmers (hookworm: coef. = − 0.349, 95% CI = − 0.547,−0.150; S. haematobium: coef. − 0.239, 95% CI = − 0.406, − 0.072). In conclusion, our findings suggest that efforts to control helminths infection should be co-integrated and health promotion campaigns should be aimed at school-going children and adults who are in constant contact with water.
Phiri, B. B. W., Ngwira, B., & Kazembe, L. N. (2016). Analysing risk factors of co-occurrence of schistosomiasis haematobium and hookworm using bivariate regression models: Case study of Chikwawa, Malawi. Parasite Epidemiology and Control, 1(2), 149–158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parepi.2016.02.001