Knowledge of mineral localization within rice grains is important for understanding the role of different elements in seed development, as well as for facilitating biofortification of seed micronutrients in order to enhance seeds' values in human diets. In this study, the concentrations of minerals in whole rice grains, hulls, brown rice, bran and polished rice were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The in vivo mineral distribution patterns in rice grains and shifts in those distribution patterns during progressive stages of germination were analyzed by synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence. The results showed that half of the total Zn, two thirds of the total Fe, and most of the total K, Ca and Mn were removed by the milling process if the hull and bran were thoroughly polished. Concentrations of all elements were high in the embryo regions even though the local distributions within the embryo varied between elements. Mobilization of the minerals from specific seed locations during germination was also element-specific. High mobilization of K and Ca from grains to growing roots and leaf primordia was observed; the flux of Zn to these expanding tissues was somewhat less than that of K and Ca; the mobilization of Mn or Fe was relatively low, at least during the first few days of germination. © 2013 Lu et al.
Lu, L., Tian, S., Liao, H., Zhang, J., Yang, X., Labavitch, J. M., & Chen, W. (2013). Analysis of Metal Element Distributions in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seeds and Relocation during Germination Based on X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging of Zn, Fe, K, Ca, and Mn. PLoS ONE, 8(2). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057360