BACKGROUND: A lot of advantages can result in a high wettability as well as a nanostructure at a titanium surface on bone implants. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the osseointegrative potential of a titan plasma-sprayed (TPS) surface refinement by acid-etching with chromosulfuric acid. This results in a hyperhydrophilic surface with a nanostructure and an extreme high wetting rate. METHODS: In total, 72 dumbbell shape titan implants were inserted in the spongy bone of the femora of 18 Gottingen minipigs in a conservative gap model. Thirty-six titan implants were coated with a standard TPS surface and 36 with the hyperhydrophilic chromosulfuric acid (CSA) surface. After a healing period of 4, 8, and 12 weeks, the animals were killed. The chronological healing process was histomorphometrically analyzed. RESULTS: The de novo bone formation, represented by the bone area (BA), is increased by approximately 1.5 times after 12 weeks with little additional benefit by use of the CSA surface. The bone-to-implant contact (BIC), which represents osseoconductive forces, shows results with a highly increased osteoid production in the CSA implants beginning at 8 and 12 weeks compared to TPS. This culminates in a 17-fold increase in BIC after a healing period of 12 weeks. After 4 weeks, significantly more osteoid was seen in the gap as de novo formation in the CSA group (p = 0.0062). Osteoid was also found more frequently after 12 weeks at the CSA-treated surface (p = 0.0355). The site of implantation, intertrochanteric or intercondylar, may influence on the de novo bone formation in the gap. CONCLUSIONS: There is a benefit by the CSA surface treatment of the TPS layer for osseointegration over an observation time up to 12 weeks. Significant differences were able to be shown in two direct comparisons between the CSA and the TPS surface for osteoid formation in the gap model. Further trials may reveal the benefit of the CSA treatment of the TPS layer involving mechanical tests if possible.
Seidling, R., Lehmann, L. J., Lingner, M., Mauermann, E., Obertacke, U., & Schwarz, M. L. R. (2016). Analysis of the osseointegrative force of a hyperhydrophilic and nanostructured surface refinement for TPS surfaces in a gap healing model with the Göttingen minipig. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13018-016-0434-6