Objectives Patients with metastatic carcinoma and venous thromboembolism commonly have contraindications to anticoagulation that prompt the use of retrievable inferior vena cava filters. The aim of this study was to compare the pattern of inferior vena cava filter use, anticoagulation management, and development of inferior vena cava filter-related complications in patients with localized versus metastatic carcinoma. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of inferior vena cava filter use at a tertiary referral hospital between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2011. Including only patients with cancer and carcinomas, both metastatic and localized, we recorded the indications for inferior vena cava filter, postfilter practices including anticoagulation use, filter retrieval rates, and filter-related complications. Results Overall, 154 patients with carcinoma underwent inferior vena cava filter placement. Basic demographics and indication for filter placement were similar between the metastatic and localized groups. Metastatic patients had more filter-related complications (25% vs 11%, P =. 03) and underwent filter retrieval less often (31% vs 58%, P =. 01). Time to reinitiating anticoagulation was longer in metastatic patients (5.5 vs 2 days, P =. 05). In multivariate analysis, metastatic disease was associated with reduced inferior vena cava filter retrieval (odds ratio, 0.3; P =. 003). Anticoagulation use was associated with a lower rate of filter-related complications (odds ratio, 0.3; P =. 005). Conclusions Patients with metastatic carcinoma with an indwelling inferior vena cava filter had a higher rate of filter-related complications, a lower filter retrieval rate, and a greater median time to initiating anticoagulation. When possible, early reinitiation of anticoagulation may reduce inferior vena cava filter-related complications.
Mahmood, S. S., Abtahian, F., Fogerty, A. E., Cefalo, P., MacKay, C., Jaff, M. R., & Weinberg, I. (2017). Anticoagulation Is Associated with Decreased Inferior Vena Cava Filter-Related Complications in Patients with Metastatic Carcinoma. American Journal of Medicine, 130(1), 77-82.e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2016.06.048