Objective: Proanthocyanidins are abundantly found in grape seeds and have been suggested to inhibit the pathogenesis of systemic diseases. We investigated the antithrombotic effects of proanthocyanidins in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and examined the underlying mechanisms. Methods: DVT was induced in rat model by inferior vena cava (IVC) ligation. Grape seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE, 400 mg/kg/d) dissolved in saline (2 mL) was orally administered to the experimental rats. Control rats were administrated saline (2 mL) only. The thrombi were harvested and weighed. The IVC was analyzed histologically and by transmission electron microscopy. The cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) in thrombi was examined by Western blot. Results: GSPE significantly reduced thrombus length and weight (P < .01) and protected the integrity of the endothelium. GSPE inhibited thrombogenesis-promoting factors P-selectin, von Willebrand factor, and CAMs, and promoted thrombogenesis- demoting factors CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, and ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type one motif, member 13). Compared with the control, GSPE significantly lowered the cytokines IL-6 (74.19 ± 13.86 vs 189.54 ± 43.76 pg/mL; P < .01), IL-8 (80.71 ± 21.42 vs 164.56 ± 39.54 pg/mL; P < .01), and TNF-α (43.11 ± 17.58 vs 231.84 ± 84.11 pg/mL; P < .01). Conclusions: GSPE significantly inhibited the propagation of thrombus induced by IVC ligation in a rat model. The antithrombotic properties of proanthocyanidins are likely to be directly associated with endothelial protection and regeneration, platelet aggregation, and inhibition of inflammatory cell and thrombus adhesion. Thus, proanthocyanidins may have a clinical application in DVT treatment. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the Society for Vascular Surgery. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Y., Shi, H., Wang, W., Ke, Z., Xu, P., Zhong, Z., … Wang, S. (2011). Antithrombotic effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 53(3), 743–753. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2010.09.017