Assessment of the Japanese Energy Efficiency Standards Program

  • Arakawa J
  • Akimoto K
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© 2015, International Centre for Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems SDEWES. All rights reserved. Japanese energy efficiency standards program for appliances is a unique program which sets and revises mandatory standards based on the products of the highest energy efficiency in the market. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of the standard settings for an air conditioner as a major residential appliance or typical example in the program. Based on analysis of empirical data, the net costs and effects from 1999 to 2040 were estimated. When applying a discount rate of 3%, the cost of abating CO2emissions realized through the considered standards was estimated to be -13,700JPY/tCO2.The sensitivity analysis, however, showed that the cost turns into positive at a discount rate of 26%or higher. The authors also revealed that the standards’ “excellent” cost-effectiveness largely depends on that of the 1st standard setting, and the CO2 abatement cost through the 2nd standard was estimated to be as high as 26,800JPY/tCO2.The results imply that the government is required to be careful about the possible economic burden imposed when considering introducing new, additional standards.




Arakawa, J., & Akimoto, K. (2014). Assessment of the Japanese Energy Efficiency Standards Program. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, 3(1), 66–78.

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