Genetic instability, a hallmark of cancer, can occur when the replication machinery encounters a barrier. The intra-S-phase checkpoint maintains stalled replication forks in a replicationcompetent configuration by phosphorylating replisome components and DNA repair proteins to prevent forks from catastrophically collapsing. Here, we report a novel function of the core Schizosaccharomyces pombe checkpoint sensor kinase, Rad3 (an ATR orthologue), that is independent of Chk1 and Cds1 (a CHK2 orthologue); Rad3ATR regulates the association of recombination factors with collapsed forks, thus limiting their genetic instability. We further reveal antagonistic roles for Rad3ATR and the 9-1-1 clamp - Rad3ATR restrains MRN- and Exo1-dependent resection, whereas the 9-1-1 complex promotes Exo1 activity. Interestingly, the MRN complex, but not its nuclease activity, promotes resection and the subsequent association of recombination factors at collapsed forks. The biological significance of this regulation is revealed by the observation that Rad3ATR prevents Exo1-dependent genome instability upstream of a collapsed fork without affecting the efficiency of recombination-mediated replication restart. We propose that the interplay between Rad3ATR and the 9-1-1 clamp functions to fine-tune the balance between the need for the recovery of replication through recombination and the risk of increased genome instability. © 2014.
Tsang, E., Miyabe, I., Iraqui, I., Zheng, J., Lambert, S. A. E., & Carr, A. M. (2014). The extent of error-prone replication restart by homologous recombination is controlled by Exo1 and checkpoint proteins. Journal of Cell Science, 127(13), 2983–2994. https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.152678