Background: Recently, the role of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) as the principal regulator of simultaneous prostaglandin synthesis and endocannabinoid receptor activation in the CNS was demonstrated. To expand upon previously published research in the field, we observed the effect of the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 during the early-stage proinflammatory response and formation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) in the Alzheimer's disease mouse model APdE9. We also investigated its effects in proinflammatory agent - induced astrocytes and microglia isolated from adult mice. Findings: Transgenic APdE9 mice (5 months old) were treated with JZL184 (40 mg/kg) or vehicle every day for 1 month. In vivo binding of the neuroinflammation-related, microglia-specific translocator protein (TSPO) targeting radioligand [18 F]GE-180 decreased slightly but statistically non-significantly in multiple brain areas compared to vehicle-treated mice. JZL184 treatment induced a significant decrease in expression levels of inflammation-induced, Iba1-immunoreactive microglia in the hippocampus (P < 0.01) and temporal and parietal (P < 0.05) cortices. JZL184 also induced a marked decrease in total Aβ burden in the temporal (P < 0.001) and parietal (P < 0.01) cortices and, to some extent, in the hippocampus. Adult microglial and astrocyte cultures pre-treated with JZL184 and then exposed to the neuroinflammation-inducing agents lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and Aβ42 had significantly reduced proinflammatory responses compared to cells without JZL184 treatment. Conclusions: JZL184 decreased the proinflammatory reactions of microglia and reduced the total Aβ burden and its precursors in the APdE9 mouse model. It also reduced the proinflammatory responses of microglia and astrocytes isolated from adult mice.
Pihlaja, R., Takkinen, J., Eskola, O., Vasara, J., López-Picón, F. R., Haaparanta-Solin, M., & Rinne, J. O. (2015). Monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 reduces neuroinflammatory response in APdE9 mice and in adult mouse glial cells. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-015-0305-9