Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are regularly used today to protect and extend the service life of several superalloys which are extensively used in high temperature applications. The existing TBCs are typically between 0.1 to 0.5 mm in thickness, are deposited on metal substrates using plasma spray or electron beam vapor deposition, and can reduce temperatures at the substrate surface by up to 300 °C. For greater temperature reductions there is a need for thicker TBCs. The building of thick TBCs has to date been stymied by poor adhesion, and cracking during deposition. It has been suggested that a functionally graded approach may reduce the residual stresses which result in these defects. To date there have been few reports on the deposition of ceramic or cermet coatings using laser AM and none have reported on the phase stability of ceramic particles post-deposition. This paper is a first report on the phase stability of ceramic particles following the compositional segregation of elements during deposition using a powder feed additive manufacturing process. Functionally graded (FG), thick TBCs (>3 mm) consisting of Inconel 625 (IN625) and yttria-partially stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) were deposited on an A516 steel substrate via laser direct energy deposition (LDED). Good interfaces were observed between the bond coat (BC) and first cermet layer and between the graded cermet layers. However, cermet layers deposited with 10 wt.% or more YSZ developed a thin layer of YSZ on the surface. The thin layer of YSZ greatly hindered additional deposition of new cermet layers. In cermet layers that did exhibit good interfaces, fine, re-solidified, YSZ particles were homogenously distributed within the Inconel 625 matrix. The YSZ particles exhibited a tetragonal lattice structure and were depleted of yttrium. In contrast, the thin YSZ layer formed on a cermet surface showed no yttrium depletion.
Rao, H., Oleksak, R. P., Favara, K., Harooni, A., Dutta, B., & Maurice, D. (2020). Behavior of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) during laser direct energy deposition of an Inconel 625-YSZ cermet. Additive Manufacturing, 31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2019.100932