We performed measurements of refraction (with retinoscopy), axial length (with ultrasound biometry) and ocular aberrations (with a custom-built Hartmann-Shack aberrometer) on seven awake White-Leghorn chicks occluded monolaterally with diffusers for two weeks. Treatment started on the first day after hatching (day 0) and measurements were conducted on several days between day 0 and 13. Non-occluded eyes experienced normal emmetropization (decreasing hyperopia at 0.2 ± 0.09 D/day and increasing axial length at 0.05 ± 0.03 mm/day), while occluded eyes developed axial myopia (1.50 ± 0.2 D/day and 0.12 ± 0.02 mm/day). Interocular differences in refraction and axial length by day 13 were on average 17.43 D and 0.86 mm, respectively. Monochromatic high order aberrations decreased with age in both eyes. Average RMS (for 1.5 mm pupil diameter) decreased from 0.11 ± 0.03 at day 0 to 0.06 ± 0.03 μm (day 13) in occluded eyes, and from 0.12 ± 0.05 to 0.03 ± 0.01 μm in non-occluded eyes. MTF-based optical quality metrics also show an improvement with age. However, while this improvement occurs in both eyes, after day 8 myopic eyes tend to show significantly higher amounts of aberrations (and consequently worse best-corrected optical quality) than normal eyes. The degradation imposed by aberrations is small compared to that imposed by defocus and the diffuser. These results suggest a decrease of aberrations during development which does not seem to be visually guided. Myopic eyes showed slightly worse optical quality than normal eyes, suggesting that the geometrical changes resulting from excessive ocular axial growth also affect the optical quality of the ocular components. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
García De La Cera, E., Rodríguez, G., & Marcos, S. (2006). Longitudinal changes of optical aberrations in normal and form-deprived myopic chick eyes. Vision Research, 46(4), 579–589. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2005.06.012