Closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) is a prominent concept emphasizing on both economic and environmental aspects. A traditional view on these CLSCs for remanufacturing consists of two stages: forward logistics and reverse logistics. There is very little literature considering the impact of dual-channel business on closed loop supply chain network design for remanufacturing. In this research, we consider a CLSC where the remanufacturer needs to satisfy the demands from both online and office channels, A mixed integer nonlinear program is developed to determine the optimal network, and prices of both online and office return, with the objective of maximizing the manufacturer's profit.
Chen, C., Zhang, G., Shi, J., & Xia, Y. (2019). Remanufacturing network design for dual-channel closed-loop supply chain. In Procedia CIRP (Vol. 83, pp. 479–484). Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2019.04.132