Revisiting resistant hypertension: a comprehensive review

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Resistant hypertension (RHT) is typically defined as blood pressure that remains above guideline-directed targets despite the use of three anti-hypertensives, usually including a diuretic, at optimal or maximally tolerated doses. It is generally estimated to affect 10–30% of those diagnosed with hypertension, though the true incidence might be lower after one factor in the prevalence of non-adherence. Risk factors for its development include diabetes, obesity and other adverse lifestyle factors, and a diagnosis of RHT confers a greater risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, such as stroke, heart failure and mortality. It is essential to exclude pseudoresistance and secondary hypertension and to ensure non-pharmacologic management is optimised prior to consideration of fourth-line anti-hypertensive agents or advanced interventions, such as device therapies. In this review, we will cover the different definitions of RHT, along with the importance of careful diagnosis and management strategies, and discuss newer agents and research needs.




Chan, R. J., Helmeczi, W., & Hiremath, S. S. (2023, October 1). Revisiting resistant hypertension: a comprehensive review. Internal Medicine Journal. John Wiley and Sons Inc.

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