BACKGROUND Pouchitis may occur following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for chronic ulcerative colitis in approximately 30% of patients. OBJECTIVES The primary objective was to determine the efficacy of medical therapies for pouchitis (including antibiotic, probiotic, and other agents) as substantiated by data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). SEARCH STRATEGY A search for RCTs from 1966 to October 2009 was performed using the MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomized controlled treatment or prevention trials of adult patients who underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis who subsequently developed pouchitis or were at risk for pouchitis were considered for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Extracted data were converted to 2X2 tables and then synthesized in to a summary statistic using the Peto odds ratio (OR) and [95% confidence intervals], or weighted mean difference (WMD), using RevMan-5 for Mac OS 10.6. MAIN RESULTS Eleven RCTs fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The efficacy of 10 different pharmacologic agents was assessed. For the treatment of acute pouchitis (4 RCTS, 5 agents), ciprofloxacin was more effective at inducing remission than metronidazole. Neither rifaximin nor lactobacillus GG were more effective than placebo, while budesonide enemas and metronidazole were similarly effective, for inducing remission of acute pouchitis. For the treatment and maintenance of remission of chronic pouchitis (4 RCTs, 4 agents), glutamine suppositories were not more effective than butyrate suppositories, and bismuth carbomer foam enemas were not more effective than placebo, while VSL#3 was more effective than placebo in maintaining remission of chronic pouchitis in patients with chronic pouchitis who achieved remission with antibiotics. For the prevention of pouchitis (3 RCTs, 2 agents), in one study VSL#3 was more effective than placebo while in another study VSL#3 was not more effective than no treatment. Allopurinol was not more effective than placebo, while inulin was more effective than placebo but the results were not clinically significant. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS For acute pouchitis, ciprofloxacin was more effective than metronidazole, while budesonide enemas and metronidazole were similarly effective. For chronic pouchitis, VSL#3 was more effective than placebo. For the prevention of pouchitis, VSL#3 was more effective than placebo. Larger RCTs are needed to determine the optimal agent(s) for the treatment and prevention of pouchitis.
Holubar, S. D., Cima, R. R., Sandborn, W. J., & Pardi, D. S. (2010). Treatment and prevention of pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for chronic ulcerative colitis. In Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd001176.pub2