Early addition of topical corticosteroids in the treatment of bacterial keratitis

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Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Scarring from bacterial keratitis remains a leading cause of visual loss. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether topical corticosteroids are beneficial as an adjunctive therapy for bacterial keratitis if given early in the course of infection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial (SCUT) was a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial that overall found no effect of adding topical corticosteroids to topical moxifloxacin hydrochloride in bacterial keratitis. Here, we assess the timing of administration of corticosteroids in a subgroup analysis of the SCUT. We define earlier administration of corticosteroids (vs placebo) as addition after 2 to 3 days of topical antibiotics and later as addition after 4 or more days of topical antibiotics. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We assess the effect of topical corticosteroids (vs placebo) on 3-month best spectacle-corrected visual acuity in patients who received corticosteroids or placebo earlier vs later. Further analyses were performed for subgroups of patients with non-Nocardia keratitis and those with no topical antibiotic use before enrollment. RESULTS: Patients treated with topical corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy within 2 to 3 days of antibiotic therapy had approximately 1-line better visual acuity at 3 months than did those given placebo (-0.11 logMAR; 95% CI, -0.20 to -0.02 logMAR; P = .01). In patients who had 4 or more days of antibiotic therapy before corticosteroid treatment, the effect was not significant; patients given corticosteroids had 1-line worse visual acuity at 3 months compared with those in the placebo group (0.10 logMAR; 95% CI, -0.02 to 0.23 logMAR; P = .14). Patients with non-Nocardia keratitis and those having no topical antibiotic use before the SCUT enrollment showed significant improvement in best spectacle-corrected visual acuity at 3 months if corticosteroids were administered earlier rather than later. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: There may be a benefit with adjunctive topical corticosteroids if application occurs earlier in the course of bacterial corneal ulcers. Copyright 2014 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

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Ray, K. J., Srinivasan, M., Mascarenhas, J., Rajaraman, R., Ravindran, M., Glidden, D. V., … Lietman, T. M. (2014). Early addition of topical corticosteroids in the treatment of bacterial keratitis. JAMA Ophthalmology, 132(6), 737–741. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.292

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