Renal Hemangioblastoma with Mixed Mullerian tumour of endometrium: A tale of two rare primary tumours

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Abstract

Introduction: Renal hemangioblastoma (RH) is a very rare benign tumour. Hemangioblastoma most commonly occurs in the central nervous system (CNS), and only few cases of RH have been reported as they occur most commonly as asymptomatic masses found incidentally. Mixed Mullerian tumour (MMT) of the uterus is a rarer and aggressive form of uterine malignancy. The detection of two primary rare tumours incidentally is a rare entity. Case presentation: A 50-year-old female presented with abnormal uterine bleeding which on endometrial sampling was diagnosed as a rare variety of endometrial cancer, i.e. MMT or uterine carcinosarcoma. On preoperative imaging, a renal mass was also detected which was highly vascular and was mimicking renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was done from the renal mass to differentiate between RCC and metastasis, but it showed only blood cells. Patient underwent staging laparotomy for endometrial cancer and frozen section examination of the renal mass which was inconclusive with few atypical cells, and thus, patient underwent radical nephrectomy too. Histopathological examination revealed it to be a RH which is a very rare benign tumour. Discussion: RH is a rare benign tumour which does not require any treatment in majority of the patients. Only 26 cases of RH outside the CNS have been reported till date. MMT is a rare aggressive uterine tumour with an incidence of 1-2 % of all uterine neoplasms, which metastasizes early, and thus, early identification and treatment is the key. RH needs to be differentiated from RCC to avoid over treatment. Morphological findings are similar in RCC and RH; preoperative FNAC, PET scan, and intraoperative frozen section can be utilized to differentiate the two, in well-circumcised tumours and high index of suspicion. Occurrence of renal mass as an incidental finding in the preoperative work up of uterine malignancy directed us to the differentials of metastasis or another histologically distinct primary tumour. The presence of two rare primary tumours, i.e. RH and MMT in the same patient which are unrelated, is a rare entity.

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Setia, A., Kumar, D., Bains, L., Sharma, P., Tempe, A., & Mallya, V. (2020). Renal Hemangioblastoma with Mixed Mullerian tumour of endometrium: A tale of two rare primary tumours. World Journal of Surgical Oncology, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12957-020-01929-1

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