Historically, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast has been managed aggressively with surgery and radiotherapy because of a risk of progression to invasive ductal carcinoma. However, this treatment paradigm has been challenged by overtreatment concerns and evidence that suggests that DCIS can be stratified according to risk of recurrence or risk of progression to invasive disease. Traditional methods of risk stratification include histologic grade and hormone receptor status. Recent technological advancements have enabled an era of precision medicine, where DCIS can be molecularly analyzed by tools, such as next-generation DNA and RNA sequencing, to identify molecular biomarkers for risk stratification. These findings have led to the development of tools such as the Oncotype DX Breast DCIS Score, a gene expression–based assay with the potential to prevent overtreatment in low-risk disease.
Shee, K., Muller, K. E., Marotti, J., Miller, T. W., Wells, W. A., & Tsongalis, G. J. (2019). Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Biomarkers in a Precision Medicine Era. The American Journal of Pathology, 189(5), 956–965. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2018.08.020