Background: This study investigated whether a machine-learning-based combination of radiomics and clinical parameters was superior to the use of clinical parameters alone in predicting therapy response after three months, and overall survival after six and twelve months, in stage-IV malignant melanoma patients undergoing immunotherapy with PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors and CTLA-4 checkpoint inhibitors. Methods: A random forest model using clinical parameters (demo-graphic variables and tumor markers = baseline model) was compared to a random forest model using clinical parameters and radiomics (extended model) via repeated 5-fold cross-validation. For this purpose, the baseline computed tomographies of 262 stage-IV malignant melanoma patients treated at a tertiary referral center were identified in the Central Malignant Melanoma Registry, and all visible metastases were three-dimensionally segmented (n = 6404). Results: The extended model was not significantly superior compared to the baseline model for survival prediction after six and twelve months (AUC (95% CI): 0.664 (0.598, 0.729) vs. 0.620 (0.545, 0.692) and AUC (95% CI): 0.600 (0.526, 0.667) vs. 0.588 (0.481, 0.629), respectively). The extended model was not significantly superior compared to the baseline model for response prediction after three months (AUC (95% CI): 0.641 (0.581, 0.700) vs. 0.656 (0.587, 0.719)). Conclusion: The study indicated a potential, but non-significant, added value of radiomics for six-month and twelve-month survival prediction of stage-IV melanoma patients undergoing immunotherapy.
Peisen, F., Hänsch, A., Hering, A., Brendlin, A. S., Afat, S., Nikolaou, K., … Othman, A. E. (2022). Combination of Whole-Body Baseline CT Radiomics and Clinical Parameters to Predict Response and Survival in a Stage-IV Melanoma Cohort Undergoing Immunotherapy. Cancers, 14(12). https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14122992