Ceragenins, synthetic mimics of endogenous antibacterial peptides, are promising candidate antimicrobial agents. However, in some settings their strong bactericidal activity is associated with toxicity towards host cells. To modulate ceragenin CSA-13 antibacterial activity and biocompatibility, CSA-13-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNP-CSA-13) were synthesized. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize MNP-CSA-13 physicochemical properties. Bactericidal action and ability of these new compounds to prevent Pseudomonas. aeruginosa biofilm formation were assessed using a bacteria killing assay and crystal violet staining, respectively. Release of hemoglobin from human red blood cells was measured to evaluate MNP-CSA-13 hemolytic activity. In addition, we used surface activity measurements to monitor CSA-13 release from the MNP shell. Zeta potentials of P. aeruginosa cells and MNP-CSA-13 were determined to assess the interactions between the bacteria and nanoparticles. Morphology of P. aeruginosa subjected to MNP-CSA-13 treatment was evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine structural changes indicative of bactericidal activity. Results: Our studies revealed that the MNP-CSA-13 nanosystem is stable and may be used as a pH control system to release CSA-13. MNP-CSA-13 exhibits strong antibacterial activity, and the ability to prevent bacteria biofilm formation in different body fluids. Additionally, a significant decrease in CSA-13 hemolytic activity was observed when the molecule was immobilized on the nanoparticle surface. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that CSA-13 retains bactericidal activity when immobilized on a MNP while biocompatibility increases when CSA-13 is covalently attached to the nanoparticle.
Niemirowicz, K., Surel, U., Wilczewska, A. Z., Mystkowska, J., Piktel, E., Gu, X., … Bucki, R. (2015). Bactericidal activity and biocompatibility of ceragenin-coated magnetic nanoparticles. Journal of Nanobiotechnology, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12951-015-0093-5