Previous studies have suggested that Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) specific IgE in the form of immune complexes crosslinking the low-affinity receptor (CD23) on monocyte results in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nitric oxide (NO) production. However, the roles of these parameters in severity and immune protection are still unclear. This study aimed to determine the association between CD23 expression on monocytes, plasma soluble CD23 (sCD23), total IgE, malaria-specific IgE and IgG, and TNF-α levels in P. falciparum infected patients. We evaluated 64 uncomplicated (UC) and 25 severe patients (S), admitted at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Mahidol University, and 34 healthy controls (C) enrolled in 2001. Flow cytometry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) demonstrated that trends of the CD23 expression, levels of sCD23 and specific IgE were higher in the S group as compared to those in the UC and C groups. Plasma levels of P. falciparum specific IgE in the UC (p = 0.011) and S groups (p = 0.025) were significantly higher than those in C group. In contrast the TNF-α levels tended to be higher in the UC than those in the S (p = 0.343) and significantly higher than those in C (p = 0.004) groups. The specific IgG levels in UC were significantly higher than those in S and C (p< 0.001) groups. At admission, a strong significant negative correlation was found between specific IgG and sCD23 (r = -0.762, p = 0.028), and TNF-α and IgE-IgG complexes (r = -0.715, p = 0.002). Significant positive correlations between levels of specific IgE and TNF-α (r = 0.575, p = 0.010); and sCD23 (r = 0.597, p = 0.000) were also observed. In conclusion, our data suggest that CD23 expression and malaria-specific IgE levels may be involved in the severity of the disease while TNF-α and the malaria-specific IgG may correlate with protection against falciparum malaria.
Kumsiri, R., Troye-Blomberg, M., Pattanapanyasat, K., Krudsood, S., & Maneerat, Y. (2016). IgE low affinity receptor (CD23) expression, Plasmodium falciparum specific IgE and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in Thai uncomplicated and severe falciparum malaria patients. Acta Tropica, 154, 25–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.10.017