Low Serum Magnesium Levels and Its Association with High Blood Pressure in Children

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Abstract

Objective To evaluate the association of hypomagnesemia with prehypertension (preHTN) and hypertension in children. Study design A total of 3954 apparently healthy Mexican children were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Exclusion criteria were type 2 diabetes; hepatic, renal, or endocrine disease; impaired fasting glucose; chronic diarrhea; and intake of vitamins or magnesium supplements in the previous 6 months. preHTN was defined by systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90th to <95th percentile and hypertension by systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥95th percentile, according to age, sex, and height percentile. Hypomagnesemia was defined by serum magnesium concentration <1.8 mg/dL (<0.74 mmol/L). To control for potential sources of bias related to age, participants were allocated into 2 groups, aged 6-10 years and 11-15 years. Results The prevalence of preHTN and hypertension was 12.2% and 6.4%, respectively, in children aged 6-10 years and 13.9% and 10.6% in those aged 11-15 years. Hypomagnesemia was identified in 59 children with preHTN (27.3%) and 52 (45.6%) with hypertension in the 6-10 year age group, and in 115 children with preHTN (36.0%) and 109 (49.6%) with hypertension in the 11-15 year age group. Adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis showed that in children in both age groups, hypomagnesemia was associated with both preHTN (6-10 years: OR, 2.18, P <1.8 mg/dL is significantly associated with preHTN and hypertension in apparently healthy children.

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Guerrero-Romero, F., Rodríguez-Morán, M., Hernández-Ronquillo, G., Gómez-Díaz, R., Pizano-Zarate, M. L., Wacher, N. H., … Lazcano, S. (2016). Low Serum Magnesium Levels and Its Association with High Blood Pressure in Children. Journal of Pediatrics, 168, 93-98.e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.09.050

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