The verification of the stability of frames or their parts carried out considering imperfections and second order effects accounted for by global analysis. The shape of the elastic critical buckling mode ηcr (x) of the structure is applied as a unique global and local initial ("ugli") imperfection ηugli(x) =ηinit(x) with amplitude η0,ugli,m proposed by Professor Chladný. Detailed description of the procedure of iterative calculation based on Chladný's method but different from it may be found in . The graphical interpretation of the results proposed by the authors and numerical example for two-hinged portal frame with uniform cross-sections and uniform axial compression forces based on  are presented. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Baláž, I., & Koleková, Y. (2012). Bending moments due to elastic buckling mode applied as uniform global and local initial imperfection of frames. In Procedia Engineering (Vol. 40, pp. 32–37). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2012.07.051