Although the Abstract is the last section to be written, it is perhaps the most important because it is usually the first to be read and often determines whether the reader will read the entire article. The Abstract is a concise synopsis of the manuscript, not a minipaper. The Journal of Hand Surgery requires a structured abstract, which serves to focus and highlight important information. The structured abstract is limited to 300 words and must include the following headings: Purpose (state the purpose/question[s] that the study addresses); it should be similar, if not identical, to the statement of purpose in the Introduction; Methods (what was performed to address that purpose); Results (present the important data); and Conclusions (direct, not speculative). © 2006 American Society for Surgery of the Hand.
Manske, P. R. (2006). Structure and Format of Peer-Reviewed Scientific Manuscripts. Journal of Hand Surgery, 31(7), 1051–1055. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2006.06.018