Perioperative local anaesthesia for reducing pain following septal surgery

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Abstract

Background: Septal surgery is a well-established procedure used to treat nasal obstruction due to deviation of the nasal septum, which is carried out under local or general anaesthesia. Local anaesthesia is used for postoperative pain control, but its effectiveness and safety are unclear. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of perioperative local anaesthesia for reducing pain in septal surgery and to evaluate the risk of associated complications. Search methods: The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the Cochrane ENT Trial Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials; Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 9 January 2018. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials and cluster-randomised controlled trials involving adults or children (or both) who underwent septal surgery. We included studies comparing local anaesthesia versus no treatment/placebo. We also included studies comparing different types of local anaesthesia to each other (i.e. local injection, the addition of an anaesthetic agent to nasal packing, where used, and sphenopalatine ganglion block). Data collection and analysis: We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. The primary outcome was postoperative pain intensity at 12, 24 and 48 hours measured by visual analogue scale (VAS) or another pain outcome tool including numerical or verbal rating scales. Secondary outcomes were requirement for additional analgesia, duration of hospitalisation and adverse effects (postoperative bleeding and postoperative vomiting). We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. Main results: We included seven randomised controlled trials involving 493 participants. In all studies the participants were adults undergoing septoplasty. These studies were heterogeneous and the quality of the body of evidence ranged from low to very low. Few of the studies provided reliable data for the primary outcome in this review. Local anaesthetic injection versus no treatment/placebo Two studies (142 participants) compared local anaesthetic injection versus placebo but these studies did not report postoperative pain at 12, 24 or 48 hours. It is unclear whether local anaesthetic injection changed the risk of vomiting (odds ratio (OR) 3.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 79.23; 60 participants; one study) (low-quality evidence). Neither study reported the requirement for additional analgesia, duration of hospitalisation or uncontrollable postoperative bleeding. Local anaesthetic application via nasal packing versus no packing/packing with placebo Four studies (301 participants) used nasal packing postoperatively and compared the addition of local anaesthetic to the pack versus packing with a placebo added. Compared with packing with placebo, the addition of local anaesthetic to nasal packing reduced the pain score on a VAS (ranging from 0 to 100) at 12 hours (mean difference (MD) -16.95, 95% CI -22.27 to -11.62; 151 participants; two studies; I2 = 49%) (low-quality evidence) and at 24 hours postoperatively (MD -7.53, 95% CI -9.76 to -5.29; 268 participants; four studies; I2 = 83%) (very low-quality evidence). These studies did not report postoperative pain at 48 hours. The addition of local anaesthetic to nasal packing decreased the requirement for additional analgesia (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.34; 151 participants; two studies; I2 = 15%) (moderate-quality evidence). No studies reported duration of hospitalisation, postoperative vomiting or uncontrollable postoperative bleeding. No studies compared the addition of local anaesthetic to nasal packing versus no packing. Sphenopalatine ganglion block versus no treatment/placebo One study (50 participants) compared sphenopalatine ganglion block versus no treatment but this study did not report postoperative pain, requirement for additional analgesia, duration of hospitalisation, vomiting or uncontrollable postoperative bleeding. Authors' conclusions: The addition of local anaesthesia to nasal packs (if these are being used) following septal surgery may reduce postoperative pain within the first 12 hours, compared to nasal packing with a placebo added. The effect is uncertain at 24 hours because the quality of the evidence is very low. Evidence was lacking for other outcomes, including adverse effects. There is a lack of evidence about the effects of local anaesthesia added to nasal packing compared to no nasal packing. There is also a lack of evidence about the effects of local anaesthesia given by injection and the effects of sphenopalatine ganglion block.

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Fujiwara, T., Kuriyama, A., Kato, Y., Fukuoka, T., & Ota, E. (2018, August 23). Perioperative local anaesthesia for reducing pain following septal surgery. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012047.pub2

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