One third of food produced for human consumption is disposed as food waste that pose a threat for the global economy and environment. Considering the physiochemical and biological nature, the food waste could be used as a raw material for fuel and energy productions will facilitate the bio-circular economy and reduce the environmental impacts. The combined fuel and value products from food waste is highly feasible under integrated bio-refinery concepts. However, the traditional technologies (i.e., composting and anaerobic digestion) are irreplaceable to maximize the benefits of food waste recycling and required detailed techno-economic analysis for commercialization.
Karthikeyan, O. P., Mehariya, S., & Chung Wong, J. W. (2017). Bio-refining of food waste for fuel and value products. In Energy Procedia (Vol. 136, pp. 14–21). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.10.253