B-Lymphoblastic Lymphomas Evolving from Follicular Lymphomas Co-Express Surrogate Light Chains and Mutated Gamma Heavy Chains

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Abstract

Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma able to transform into germinal center-type diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We describe four extraordinary cases of FL, which progressed to TdT+CD20− precursor B-lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that all four B-LBLs had acquired a MYC translocation on transformation. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of one case demonstrated that in addition to 26 numerical aberrations that were shared between the FL and B-LBL, deletion of CDKN2A/B and 17q11, 14q32 amplification, and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity of 9p were gained in the B-LBL cells. Whole-exome sequencing revealed mutations in FMN2, NEB, and SYNE1 and a nonsense mutation in KMT2D, all shared by the FL and B-LBL, and TNFRSF14, SMARCA2, CCND3 mutations uniquely present in the B-LBL. Remarkably, all four FL–B-LBL pairs expressed IgG. In two B-LBLs, evidence was obtained for ongoing rearrangement of IG light chain variable genes and expression of the surrogate light chain. IGHV mutation analysis showed that all FL–B-LBL pairs harbored identical or near-identical somatic mutations. From the somatic gene alterations found in the IG and non-IG genes, we conclude that the FLs and B-LBLs did not develop in parallel from early t(14;18)-positive IG-unmutated precursors, but that the B-LBLs developed from preexistent FL subclones that accumulated additional genetic damage.

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Slot, L. M., Hoogeboom, R., Smit, L. A., Wormhoudt, T. A. M., Biemond, B. J., Oud, M. E. C. M., … van Noesel, C. J. M. (2016). B-Lymphoblastic Lymphomas Evolving from Follicular Lymphomas Co-Express Surrogate Light Chains and Mutated Gamma Heavy Chains. American Journal of Pathology, 186(12), 3273–3284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2016.07.027

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