The art and science of debriefing in simulation: Ideal and practice

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Objectives: Describing what simulation centre leaders see as the ideal debriefing for different simulator courses (medical vs. crisis resource management (CRM)-oriented). Describing the practice of debriefing based on interactions between instructors and training participants. Methods: Study 1 Electronic questionnaire on the relevance of different roles of the medical teacher for debriefing (facilitator, role model, information provider, assessor, planner, resource developer) sent to simulation centre leaders. Study 2 Observation study using a paper-and-pencil tool to code interactions during debriefings in simulation courses for CRM for content (medical vs. CRM-oriented) and type (question vs. utterance). Results: Study 1 The different roles were seen as equally important for both course types with the exception of 'information provider' which was seen as more relevant for medical courses. Study 2 There were different interaction patterns during debriefings: line involving mostly the instructor and one course participant, triangle instructor and two participants, fan instructor and all participants in a dyadic form and net all participants and the instructor with cross references. Conclusion: What simulation centre heads think is important for the role mix of simulation instructors is (at least partly) not reflected in debriefing practice.




Dieckmann, P., Friis, S. M., Lippert, A., & Østergaard, D. (2009). The art and science of debriefing in simulation: Ideal and practice. Medical Teacher, 31(7).

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