Objectives To determine the spectrum of infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) and the clinical impact of the newly available betalactam/betalactamase inhibitor combinations ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam in a German academic tertiary care center. Methods Retrospective analysis. Results Between September 1, 2015 and August 31, 2016, 119 individual patients (0.22% of all hospital admissions) were colonized or infected with carbapenem-resistant MDR-GNB. The species distribution was Pseudomonas aeruginosa, n = 66; Enterobacteriaceae spp., n = 44; and Acinetobacter baumannii, n = 18. In 9 patients, carbapenem-resistant isolates belonging to more than one species were detected. Infection was diagnosed in 50 patients (total: 42.0%; nosocomial pneumonia: n = 23, 19.3%; bloodstream infection: n = 11, 9.2%). Antimicrobial treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics prior to detection of a carbapenem-resistant isolate was documented in 105 patients (88.2%, prior administration of carbapenems: 62.2%). Nos-ocomial transmission was documented in 29 patients (24.4%). In 26 patients (21.8%), at least one carbapenem-susceptible, third-generation cephalosporin non-susceptible isolate was documented prior to detection of a carbapenem-resistant isolate belonging to the same species (median 38 days, IQR 23–78). 12 patients (10.1%) had documented previous contact to the healthcare system in a country with high burden of carbapenemase-producing strains. Genes encoding carbapenemases were detected in 60/102 patient isolates (58.8%; VIM-2, n = 25; OXA-48, n = 21; OXA-23-like, n = 10). Susceptibility to colistin was 94.3%. Ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam were administered to 3 and 5 patients, respectively (in-hospital mortality: 66% and 100%). Development of drug-resistance under therapy was observed for both antimicrobials. Conclusions i) The major predisposing factors for acquisition of carbapenem-resistant MDR-GNB were selective pressure due to preceding antimicrobial therapy and nosocomial transmission. ii) Colistin remains the backbone of antimicrobial chemotherapy for infections caused by carbapenem-resistant MDR-GNB. iii) Novel β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations are of limited usefulness in our setting because of the high prevalence of Ambler class B carbapenemases and the emergence of nonsusceptibility under therapy.
Katchanov, J., Asar, L., Klupp, E. M., Both, A., Rothe, C., König, C., … Maurer, F. P. (2018). Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens in a German university medical center: Prevalence, clinical implications and the role of novel β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations. PLoS ONE, 13(4). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195757