© 2016 Biering-Sørensen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Purpose To define normal values of the cardiac time intervals obtained by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) M-mode through the mitral valve (MV). Furthermore, to evaluate the association of the myocardial performance index (MPI) obtained by TDI M-mode (MPITDI) and the conventional method of obtaining MPI (MPIConv), with established echocardiographic and invasive measures of systolic and diastolic function. Methods In a large community based population study (n = 974), where all are free of any cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors, cardiac time intervals, including isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), isovolumic contraction time (IVCT), and ejection time (ET) were obtained by TDI M-mode through the MV. IVCT/ET, IVRT/ETand the MPI ((IVRT+IVCT)/ET) were calculated. We also included a validation population (n = 44) of patients who underwent left heart catheterization and had the MPITDIand MPIConvmeasured. Results IVRT, IVRT/ET and MPI all increased significantly with increasing age in both genders (p<0.001 for all). IVCT, ET, IVRT/ET, and MPI differed significantly between males and females, displaying that women, in general exhibit better cardiac function. MPITDI was significantly associated with invasive (dP/dt max) and echocardiographic measures of systolic (LVEF, global longitudinal strain and global strainrate s) and diastolic function (e′, global strainrate e)(p<0.05 for all), whereas MPIConv was significantly associated with LVEF, e′ and global strainrate e (p<0.05 for all). Conclusion Normal values of cardiac time intervals differed between genders and deteriorated with ncreasing age. The MPITDI(but not MPIConv) is associated with most invasive and estabished echocardiographic measures of systolic and diastolic function.
Biering-Sørensen, T., Mogelvang, R., De Knegt, M. C., Olsen, F. J., Galatius, S., & Jensen, J. S. (2016). Cardiac time intervals by tissue doppler imaging M-mode: Normal values and association with established echocardiographic and invasive measures of systolic and diastolic function. PLoS ONE, 11(4). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153636