Activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) by its agonist, G1, protects the heart from stressors such as pressure-overload, ischemia, a high-salt diet, estrogen loss, and aging, in various male and female animal models. Due to nonspecific effects of G1, the exact functions of cardiac GPER cannot be concluded from studies using systemic G1 administration. Moreover, global knockdown of GPER affects glucose homeostasis, blood pressure, and many other cardiovascular-related systems, thereby confounding interpretation of its direct cardiac actions. We generated a cardiomyocyte-specific GPER knockout (KO) mouse model to specifically investigate the functions of GPER in cardiomyocytes. Compared to wild type mice, cardiomyocyte-specific GPER KO mice exhibited adverse alterations in cardiac structure and impaired systolic and diastolic function, as measured by echocardiography. Gene deletion effects on left ventricular dimensions were more profound in male KO mice compared to female KO mice. Analysis of DNA microarray data from isolated cardiomyocytes of wild type and KO mice revealed sex-based differences in gene expression profiles affecting multiple transcriptional networks. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) revealed that mitochondrial genes are enriched in GPER KO females, whereas inflammatory response genes are enriched in GPER KO males, compared to their wild type counterparts of the same sex. The cardiomyocyte-specific GPER KO mouse model provides us with a powerful tool to study the functions of GPER in cardiomyocytes. The gene expression profiles of the GPER KO mice provide foundational information for further study of the mechanisms underlying sex-specific cardioprotection by GPER.
H., W., X., S., J., C., M., L., C.M., F., G., Z.-S., & L., G. (2017). Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) leads to left ventricular dysfunction and adverse remodeling: A sex-specific gene profiling analysis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease, 1863(8), 1870–1882. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2016.10.003 LK - http://rug.on.worldcat.org/atoztitles/link/?sid=EMBASE&issn=1879260X&id=doi:10.1016%2Fj.bbadis.2016.10.003&atitle=Cardiomyocyte-specific+deletion+of+the+G+protein-coupled+estrogen+receptor+%28GPER%29+leads+to+left+ventricular+dysfunction+and+adverse+remodeling%3A+A+sex-specific+gene+profiling+analysis&stitle=Biochim.+Biophys.+Acta+Mol.+Basis+Dis.&title=Biochimica+et+Biophysica+Acta+-+Molecular+Basis+of+Disease&volume=1863&issue=8&spage=1870&epage=1882&aulast=Wa