Introduction Within this longitudinal study we investigated the association of inflammation markers Creactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and endothelial dysfunction markers intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) with left ventricular mass indexed for height2·71 (LVMI) in hypertensive predialysis CKD patients. Material and Methods From 2004 to 2005, 182 incident consecutive adult patients from the outpatient CKD clinics of two hospitals in Greece with CKD and hypertension or using antihypertensive medication, were included. Of these, 107 patients underwent CRP (mg/l) and LVMI (g/height2·71) measurements annually for three years. Results In the longitudinal analyses, using linear mixed modeling, a higher IL-6 (ß = 1.9 (95% ci:0.38;3.5), inflammation score based on CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α (ß = 5.0 (95%ci:0.72; 9.4) and VCAM-1 (ß = 0.01 (95%ci:0.005;0.02) were associated with higher LVMI. These models were adjusted for age, gender and primary renal disease, and for confounders that on top changed the beta with ≥10%, i.e. diuretic use (for IL-6 and inflammation score). Conclusion The results suggest that in predialysis CKD patients, inflammation as well as endothelial dysfunction may play an important role towards the increase in LVMI.
Ioannou, K., Stel, V. S., Dounousi, E., Jager, K. J., Papagianni, A., Pappas, K., … Tsakiris, D. (2015). Inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and increased left ventricular mass in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients: A longitudinal study. PLoS ONE, 10(9). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138461