To identify differentially expressed hepatic genes contributing to the improvement of high-fat (HF) diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance following supplementation of partially defatted flavonoid-rich Chardonnay grape seed flour (ChrSd), diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were fed HF diets containing either ChrSd or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, control) for 5 weeks. The 2-h insulin area under the curve was significantly lowered by ChrSd, indicating that ChrSd improved insulin sensitivity. ChrSd intake also significantly reduced body weight gain, liver and adipose tissue weight, hepatic lipid content, and plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, despite a significant increase in food intake. Exon microarray analysis of hepatic gene expression revealed down-regulation of genes related to triglyceride and ceramide synthesis, immune response, oxidative stress, and inflammation and upregulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation, cholesterol, and bile acid synthesis. In conclusion, the effects of ChrSd supplementation in a HF diet on weight gain, insulin resistance, and progression of hepatic steatosis in DIO mice were associated with modulation of hepatic genes related to oxidative stress, inflammation, ceramide synthesis, and lipid and cholesterol metabolism.
Seo, K. H., Bartley, G. E., Tam, C., Kim, H. S., Kim, D. H., Chon, J. W., … Yokoyama, W. (2016). Chardonnay grape seed flour ameliorates hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance via altered hepatic gene expression for oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid and ceramide synthesis in diet-induced obese mice. PLoS ONE, 11(12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0167680